【TopCoder SRM713】CoinsQuery

相关链接

题目传送门:https://community.topcoder.com/stat?c=problem_statement&pm=14572&rd=16882

题目大意

给$n(n \le 100)$类物品,第$i$类物品重量为$w_i(w_i \le 100)$,价值为$v_i(v_i \le 10^9)$,数量无限
给定$m(m \le 100)$个询问,第$i$询问请你回答总重量恰好为$q_i(q_i \le 10^9)$的物品,价值和最大为多少
你还需要求出使价值最大的方案数是多少(同类物品视作一样,摆放顺序不同算不同)

解题报告

规定每个物品重量不超过$100$那么我们就可以矩乘
但有一个问题:我们不仅要让价值最大,还要求方案数

但类比倍增Floyd:在一定条件,矩乘重载运算符之后仍然满足结合律
比如说这个题,我们可以:

重载加法为:两种方案取最优
重载乘法为:将两种方案拼起来(方案数相乘,价值相加)

然后直接做是$O(m n^3 \log n)$的,会在第$21$个点$TLE$
于是我们预处理转移矩阵的幂次,然后对于每个询问就是向量与矩阵相乘,单次复杂度是$O(n^2)$的
于是总的时间复杂度优化到:$O(m n^2 \log n + n^3 \log n)$

Code

#include<bits/stdc++.h>
#define LL long long
using namespace std;

const int MOD = 1000000007;
const int N = 101;

struct Data{
	LL val,chs;
	inline Data() {val = chs = -1;}
	inline Data(LL a, LL b):val(a),chs(b) {}
	inline Data operator + (const Data &D) {
		if (chs == -1 || D.chs == -1) {
			return chs != -1? *this: D;
		} else {
			Data ret(max(val, D.val), 0);
			(ret.chs += (val == ret.val? chs: 0)) %= MOD;
			(ret.chs += (D.val == ret.val? D.chs: 0)) %= MOD;
			return ret;
		}
	}
	inline Data operator * (const Data &D) {
		if (!~chs || !~D.chs) return Data(-1, -1);
		return Data(val + D.val, chs * D.chs % MOD);
	}
}e(0,1);
struct Matrix{
	Data a[N][N]; int x,y;
	inline Matrix() {x = y = 0;}
	inline Matrix(int X, int Y):x(X),y(Y) {}
	inline Matrix operator * (const Matrix &M) {
		Matrix ret(M.x, y);
		for (int i=1;i<=M.x;i++) {
			for (int k=1;k<=x;k++) {
				for (int j=1;j<=y;j++) {
					ret.a[i][j] = ret.a[i][j] + (a[k][j] * M.a[i][k]);
				}
			}
		}
		return ret;
	}
}tra[32];

class CoinsQuery {
    public:
    	vector<LL> query(vector<int> w, vector<int> v, vector<int> query) {
    	    int m = query.size(), n = w.size();
			tra[0].x = tra[0].y = 100;
    	    for (int i=0;i<n;i++) {
				tra[0].a[w[i]][1] = tra[0].a[w[i]][1] + Data(v[i], 1);
			}
			for (int i=2;i<=100;i++) {
				tra[0].a[i-1][i] = e;
			}
			for (int i=1;i<=30;i++) {
				tra[i] = tra[i-1] * tra[i-1];
			}
    	    
			vector<LL> ret;
    	    for (int tt=0;tt<m;tt++) {
				Matrix ans(100, 1);
				ans.a[1][1] = e;
				int cur = query[tt];
				for (int i=0;cur;cur>>=1,++i) {
					if (cur & 1) {
						ans = ans * tra[i];
					}
				}
				ret.push_back(ans.a[1][1].val);
				ret.push_back(ans.a[1][1].chs);
			}
    	    return ret;
   		}
   	private:
};

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